Should You Use an IRA or a 401(k)?
401(k) Quick Summary
- A 401(k) is only offered through your employer. IRAs can be opened by anyone with qualifying income.
- If your employer offers to match your 401(k) contributions, you should almost always contribute to your 401(k).
- A 401(k) allows you to invest more per year, but an IRA may make more sense if your 401(k). has high fees or limited investment options.
Both IRAs and 401(k)s can help you achieve your retirement savings goals. Which is right for you? The answer is based on a few key factors:
- How much do you want to contribute?
- Does your employer offer a 401(k) match?
- Are the fees on your 401(k) investment options competitive?
- Does your 401(k) offer good investment choices?
- Are there other special considerations?
Understanding 401(k)s and IRAs
Start by knowing the differences between the two types of plans.
A 401(k) is an employer-sponsored retirement plan. A traditional 401(k) plan lets you invest some of your pay, usually in mutual funds or company stock, before taxes are deducted from it. A growing number of employers also offer Roth 401(k)s, which let you invest after-tax dollars.
401(k)s are powerful savings tools. A key reason is that the contributions are on autopilot: They are deducted from your paycheck and contributed to your 401(k) for you. You don’t have to wait for the cash to hit your bank account, and then move it to an investment account. When the money automatically comes out of your paycheck, you barely miss it. In fact, you can even sign up for automatic escalations, so that your contributions rise as your salary does. What’s more, 401(k)s have quite generous contribution limits, so you can save much more in a 401(k) than an IRA.
Even better, many employers also offer to match a portion of what you save—the closest thing to free money you may see in your lifetime. That makes it almost always advantageous to at least contribute enough to get the employer match, even if you put the next batch of money into an IRA.You can also leave your 401(k) with your employer even after you leave a job, based on certain rules, or you can convert your 401(k) into an IRA. (That’s called a rollover.)
There are several varieties of IRAs—short for Individual Retirement Accounts. A Traditional IRA is a savings and investment account where you can tuck money for retirement and get a tax break for it. You must pay the taxes on your original contributions and earnings, but only when you withdraw the money upon retirement. That can help you save on taxes if you expect to be in a lower tax bracket upon retirement.
A Roth IRA does not offer a tax break now, but you can take distributions tax-free upon retirement. For those who expect to be in a higher tax bracket after retirement, a Roth IRA may be attractive for that reason. The deductibility of Traditional IRAs and contributions to Roth IRAs are subject to income limits.
If you can afford to contribute to both a 401(k) and IRA, it often makes sense to do so. However, your contributions and whether you are covered by a 401(k) may limit the tax deduction you can take for contributions to a Traditional IRA. Contributions to a 401(k) will not affect your contributions to a Roth IRA, since they are not tax deductible.
Read on for details.
You can open an IRA, as long as you will be younger than 70½ at the year’s end, if you are working or receive long-term disability benefits. If you do not have a paying job, but your spouse has taxable compensation, you can still open an IRA.
The maximum contribution for a 401k or self-employed 401(k) is $18,000 for 2017. Those 50 and older can make a catch-up contribution of $6,000. An IRA has lower contribution limits than a 401(k). The contribution limits for IRAs for 2017 are $5,500 ($6,500 if you are 50 or older).
Many employers with 401(k) plans offer a match, which does not count toward your contribution limit. If there is a match, it usually makes sense to save up to that point in your 401(k) before opening an IRA. You can’t beat free money.
Most employers have varying rules on matching funds. Sometimes it involves vesting (i.e. how long you have been at the employer) or they will offer to match a certain percentage (for every $1 you save, they will add $.50). Make sure to read over the rules, but it’s almost always worth doing.
As you decide where to put your money, pay attention to the fees you are paying. Sometimes, your 401(k) may charge very high fees on the mutual funds it offers: In some cases, more than 2% a year. Smaller companies, those with fewer than 100 or 50 employees, are especially apt to have high fees that will cut into your returns over time. In those cases, you may be better off saving in an IRA.
To evaluate the quality of your 401(k) plan compared with plans at other companies of about the same size, check out Brightscope. The average plan fee, known as an expense ratio, was .47% for domestic equity mutual funds in 2014, according to the most recent study released in December 2016 by Brightscope and the Investment Company Institute. For international funds, it was 0.63%. Fees were lowest in large companies.
With an IRA, you have a much better chance of finding low-cost investments. Vanguard Investments, Fidelity Investments, Charles Schwab and Northern Funds are four companies with a wide choice of index funds that offer extremely low expense ratios (0.09%, for example) .
Check the 401(k)’s Investment Choices
You should also consider the quality of the investments available in your 401k). If there are only a handful of mutual funds, especially if they are high-priced, you may be better off saving in an IRA. The average number of funds in 401(k) plans in 2014 was 28, according to Brightscope and the ICI.
Keep in mind that quantity does not necessarily equal quality. Some employers may offer dozens of options, which sometimes just makes things even more confusing. If your employer offers only a few funds, but they are low-cost, well-balanced lifecycle funds, this can be a good choice.
Sometimes companies require investment in company stock. Since your ongoing employment is already tied to the company, tying your retirement to the company’s success can be dangerous. It’s great if you work for Apple, not so good if you worked for Enron
A typical IRA at a financial services company, on the other hand, gives you access to a broad universe of investment choices. Brokers like Fidelity, E*TRADE and Merrill Lynch offer thousands of mutual funds, stocks, bonds, ETFs and even options.
In all cases, however, you should give special consideration to “target date” or “lifecycle” funds. Offered by many different companies, these funds include a package of diversified, low-cost investments. Target-date funds are designed to be the single holding in your retirement portfolio. Even better, they automatically adjust their investment mix over time as you age to balance the risk. For example, the Fidelity Freedom funds lets you pick when you want to retire and then it manages everything else for you. Whether you invest in a 401(k) or an IRA, these can be great investment options. Make sure, though, that the fund’s expense ratios (fees) aren’t high.
What Happens When You Leave Your Employer?
When you leave your employer, you can leave your money in your old 401(k) plan, move it to the 401(k) at your new job, or open an IRA and roll your money into it. You won’t pay taxes if you roll the money into some kind of retirement plan.
You can either move the money directly, or take a check. Even if you take a check, you will still have 60 days of a tax grace period to get the money into a retirement plan to avoid taxes and penalties. Most experts advise against leaving your money in your old 401(k) because you might forget about it. Before you decide what to do, compare the fees and investment choices in the old plan against the IRA or 401(k) that you are considering moving to.
A Roth 401(k) can only be rolled over into another Roth 401(k) or a Roth IRA.
- Some 401(k)s allow you to borrow money. IRAs do not. The maximum amount that a plan can permit is the greater of $10,000 or 50% of your vested account balance, or $50,000, whichever is less. A 401(k) can serve as an emergency cash reserve, but most experts strongly advise against taking loans lightly. You will lose a significant amount of investment returns unless you pay the money back right away.
- Some 401(k) plans help you save more over time by automatically increasing your payroll deductions as your salary rises. With an IRA, you have to stay aware of whether you are contributing enough.
- There are two kinds of 401(k)s, Traditional 401(k)s and Roth 401(k)s. With a Traditional 401(k), you contribute tax-free from your paycheck, but the distributions, including your earnings, are included in your taxable income upon retirement. With a Roth 401(k), you pay taxes on the contributions, but withdraw them tax-free on retirement. More and more employers are offering Roth 401(k)s, but they are still much less common.
The Advantages of Contributing to Both an IRA and 401(k)
One of the great things about a 401(k) is that you can contribute much more pre-tax and than you can in an IRA. You can save more in a 401(k) . As we mentioned above, the maximum contribution for a 401(k) or self-employed 401(k) is $18,000 for 2017. Those 50 and older can make a catch-up contribution of $6,000. An IRA has lower contribution limits than a 401(k). The contribution limits for IRAs for 2017 are $5,500 ($6,500 if you are 50 or older). Your contribution cannot exceed your taxable compensation for the year.
If you can afford to contribute to both a 401(k) and an IRA, it probably makes sense to do so: You will save more for retirement than either account would provide for alone. Employed people under 50 generally can save up to $23,500 per year if they have both a 401(k) and one or more IRAs.
If you’ve contributed the maximum you can to a 401(k) (good for you!), you can still contribute to an IRA. However, if your income is $72,000 ($119,000 if you are married), the contributions aren’t tax deductible for 2017. That means it may be more to your advantage to save in a Roth IRA if you have maxed out your 401(k) and meet the income requirements. If you have a spouse who doesn’t work outside the home, you may be eligible to open a spousal IRA and make tax-deductible contributions to it.
Alternatives to 401(k)s and IRAs
If you own a business, you may have a few other options that will let you save even more for retirement.
Solo 401(k)/Solo Roth 401(k)
You can open and contribute to a solo 401(k) plan or a solo Roth 401(k) plan. Because you are contributing as both employee and employer, your contribution limit is higher. Not counting catch-up contributions for those age 50 and over, you can contribute $54,000 for 2017.
Instead of a 401(k) plan for yourself and your employees, you can open a SIMPLE IRA plan. With a SIMPLE IRA, the employee may defer up to $12,500 in 2017. Employees age 50 or over can make a catch-up contribution of up to $3,000.
As an employer, you must match each employee’s salary reduction contribution on a dollar-for-dollar basis up to 3% of the employee’s compensation. Or, you can make contributions of 2% of the employee’s compensation up to the annual limit of $270,000 for 2017. If you own your own business, opening a SIMPLE IRA can be a good way of saving a lot of your income tax-free.
An IRA has much lower contribution limits than a 401(k). The contribution limits for IRAs for 2017 are $5,500 ($6,500 if you are 50 or older). Your contribution cannot exceed your taxable compensation for the year.
Making Your Choice
While all retirement plans have their pros and cons, you are better off using one than not saving at all. Sit down with your financial advisor or an accountant and make a plan based on your options. If you’re a business owner, seriously consider one of the plans that will let you set aside more. Most important: Get started today and you’ll be on your way to a more secure retirement.